In these rainy days there is more virus circulation and more risk of infants to be infected. Some symptoms can be managed at home. However, we must look at warning signs.
The rainy season brings with cough, throat irritation, headache and other discomforts associated with respiratory diseases. However, adults suffer from cold; it is imminent danger to children, especially newborns. Hence the importance of parents and caregivers of children increase their attention at this time, in which emergency rooms have been taken over by children with acute respiratory infection-ARI.
What is the IRA?
Acute respiratory infections are diseases caused by several types of microbes, especially viruses and bacteria, which affect the airway from the nasal region into the lung.
These diseases cause inflammation acute (short term) of the upper respiratory system (nose and larynx) or lower respiratory system (lungs).
“They are generated by contact with the germ, either through a contaminated person (who has the flu, for example) or contaminated objects (toys, clothing, medical items). It can also be transmitted through the air with the virus particles expelling a person to cough, “said Ivan Booth, president of the Colombian Association of pediatric pulmonologist and Latin American Society of pediatric pulmonologist.
Usually, these infections last from three to five days. The majority is viral and requires supportive measures to manage symptoms. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics.
“At least 90 percent of acute respiratory infections are given by viruses and bacteria 10 percent … many of these are mild. Those which produce increased risk of death in children are bronchiolitis and pneumonia, “says pediatric pulmonologist Gustavo Aristizabal, coordinator of the acute respiratory diseases of the Ministry of Health of Bogota.
Management at home
Generally, an infectious fever is controlled, offer the child plenty of fluids, adequate nutrition (you should keep breast milk at all times), do not suppress the cough (it’s a defense mechanism to remove lung secretions ) and is vital to keep your nose clean.
Fever is good in some way. And not always have to lower it, says Aristizabal, it indicates that the child’s defenses are working. It is something for a fever when the temperature is greater than 38.4 degrees Celsius (measured in the armpit). As for the nasal wash, they should clean the small nose with saline solution: using a dropper or a syringe without needle (1 cm), make the child seated and apply two drops in each nostril every time you feel congested. Do not do it when you just finish eating or very cold water.
Emergency consultations in the following cases:
– All children younger than two months with fever.
– Any child older than two months with a fever that lasts more than three days.
– All children younger than two months to decrease the appetite.
– Every child, less or more than two months, too sleepy or too decayed.
– Any child who convulsed, of any age.
– All children younger or older than two months to sound the chest when breathing (wheezing).
– All children younger or older than two months that have rapid breathing.
– All children younger or older than two months that the ribs are sinking or have any signs of trouble breathing.
Type of infections
Upper respiratory infections:
Flu or common cold. It is caused by viruses and can cause fever for a few days, small nose and cough.
Otitis (ear is part of the respiratory organ). The middle ear becomes inflamed and this occurs usually as a result of throat infections, tonsillitis and colds. Only in specific cases requires antibiotic management (fluid in the ear that does not disappear).
Otitis media with effusion means that there is fluid in the middle ear (inner ear) and that the inside is swollen. This fluid usually does not bother children, and almost always goes alone.
– Sinusitis. Presence of infection or inflammation of the sinuses, holes where air passes through the interior of the bones surrounding the nose.
– Pharyngitis and tonsillitis. The first is inflammation of the throat, often by a cold or flu. Tonsillitis is pain and inflammation of the tonsils.
– Laryngitis. It also produces a virus. It is accompanied by mild fever, dry cough, and runny nose.
Lower respiratory infections:
– Bronchitis. It is inflammation of the main airways (bronchi) to the lungs. It causes coughing, shortness of breath and chest tightness. The cough is usually accompanied by expectoration of yellowish or greenish mucus. It dries and disappears spontaneously.
– Bronchiolitis. Subsequent to the bronchioles, smaller ducts where the air goes. There are about 30,000 in each lung. A bronchiole is about the same thickness as a hair. Virus is the responsibility of infection which mainly affects children under one year. Its symptoms are mild fever, dry cough at first and then wet for several days or weeks, and chest sounds (wheezing). It is complicated by difficult breathing.
– Pneumonia. It is usually caused by bacteria. It would be the only disease that would require antibiotics for management. It causes prolonged fever, frequent cough and the diagnosis is confirmed with a medical examination and a chest radiograph.
How to avoid complicating the flu?
It is important to first talk about prevention. A well-fed mother with a rigorous and free prenatal cigarette smoke has less risk of delivering prematurely, said Gustavo Aristizabal pulmonologist.
Tips for preventing complications in infants:
– Have updated basic vaccination, essential protection against various diseases.
– Breastfeeding exclusively during the first six months of life. – Prevent the child lie down for at least 30 minutes after food intake to keep from coughing, and bronchial food back.
– Adults should always have very clean hands, especially when they are to prepare food. A good caregiver should wash hands for 20 to 30 times a day.
– People with colds should always wear face masks.
– In rainy season, entertain the children well and avoid drafts.
– No self-medicate and do not administer medication influenza in children under two years old.
– No smoking in the house of the infant.